"Present day" (1990s) sea surface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (from the GLODAP climatology)

Spectrum of sun and earth

x axis is wave length in the unit of nm y axis is intensity of the astronomic object in an arbitrary unit. Temperature of earth was 290K for calculation

Wiens law

Black body thermal emission intensity as a function of wavelength for various (absolute) temperatures. Wien's law is not obvious in the picture, because the total emission includes a geometrical factor of 1/λ2 which counts the number of fourier modes of wavelength λ, and a second factor of 1/λ2 to convert intensities per-unit-frequency to intensities per-unit-wavelength

Radiation spectrum of planet

x axis is wave length in the unit of nm y axis is intensity of the astronomic object in an arbitrary unit. Temperature of planet used for calculation were mean value.

Baryon jet or Baryojet might happen in the process of Gravitation of water.

Photovapor is an analogy of Photoelectron. If incindence angle of photon on the surface of water is very oblique, photovapor of Dangling bond water molecules might have antiparallel spin normal to the incidence plane.

The proton spin of hydrogens should be also antiparallel for Pair annihilation which might jet electrons. Further annihilation might happen for antiparallel spin oxygen necleus which might jet protons.

It's hard to say, secondary gravitation of water vapor pair W2 might give O2. With Baryon jet, Oxygen might give Nitrogen and even Carbon. This process might be proceeding aminoacid synthesis.

Compared with abundance of nitrogen, deuterium which might be the actual unit of baryojet are rare.

Natural abundance of DeuteriumEdit

Deuterium occurs in trace amounts naturally as deuterium gas, written 2H2 or D2, but most natural occurrence in the universe is bonded with a typical 1H atom, a gas called hydrogen deuteride (HD or 1H2H).[1]

The existence of deuterium on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system (as confirmed by planetary probes), and in the spectra of stars, is an important datum in cosmology. Gamma radiation from ordinary nuclear fusion dissociates deuterium into protons and neutrons, and there are no known natural processes other than the Big Bang nucleosynthesis, which might have produced deuterium at anything close to the observed natural abundance of deuterium (deuterium is produced by the rare cluster decay, and occasional absorption of naturally-occurring neutrons by light hydrogen, but these are trivial sources). The natural deuterium abundance seems to be a very similar fraction of hydrogen, wherever hydrogen is found. Thus, the existence of deuterium at a low but constant fraction in all hydrogen, is one of the arguments in favor of the Big Bang theory over the steady state theory of the universe. It is estimated that the abundances of deuterium have not evolved significantly since their production about 13.7 billion years ago.[2]

The world's leading "producer" of deuterium (technically, merely enricher or concentrator of deuterium) was Canada, until 1997 when the last plant was shut down (see more in the heavy water article). Canada uses heavy water as a neutron moderator for the operation of the CANDU reactor design. India is now probably the world's largest concentrator of heavy water, also used in nuclear power reactors.

Semiheavy water of Heavy waterEdit

Semiheavy water, HDO, exists whenever there is water with hydrogen-1 (or protium) and deuterium present in the mixture. This is because hydrogen atoms (hydrogen-1 and deuterium) are rapidly exchanged between water molecules. Water containing 50% H and 50% D in its hydrogen actually contains about 50% HDO and 25% each of H2O and D2O, in dynamic equilibrium. Semiheavy water, HDO, occurs naturally in regular water at a proportion of about 1 molecule in 3,200 (each hydrogen has a probability of one in 6,400 of being D). Heavy water, D2O, by comparison, occurs naturally at a proportion of about 1 molecule in 41 million (i.e., one in 6,4002). This makes semiheavy water far more prevalent than "normal" heavy water.

See alsoEdit


  1. IUPAC Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2001). "Names for Muonium and Hydrogen Atoms and their Ions" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry 73: 377–380. doi:10.1351/pac200173020377, 
  2. The End of Cosmology?: Scientific American