A biological transmutation is defined as a nuclear transmutation occurring in a living organism. Such transmutations are strongly believed not to occur according to mainstream physics, chemistry and biology, however proponents of the hypothesis claim to have empirical evidence that they do.
Louis Kervran claims to have conducted experiments and studies demonstrating phenomena such as anomalous increase in calcium and decrease in magnesium levels during the synthesis of egg shells and anomalous excretion of magnesium. Here, "anomalous" refers to a violation of the Lavoisier principle. He formulated the biological transmutation hypothesis as an explanation.
For example, one of the claims is that biological organisms can transform Potassium into Calcium via the addition of one hydrogen nucleus: K39 + H1 = Ca40. None of the fissioned elements would be travelling at high velocity since biological organisms lack any mechanism to do this. The environment would not have neither high pressure nor high temperature since no biological organims could survive the required pressure and temperature, not even for extremely short periods of time. This amounts to having a nuclear fusion reaction in a low energy environment, which would go against basic physic laws.
Since these anomalies are not observed by mainstream science the foremost challenge to these claims is that the evidence is flawed. The "anomalous" evidence is either the result of experimental error or intentionally falsified. Even if the evidence was reliable the biological transmutation hypothesis does not fit within mainstream theory. According to current models nuclear reactions, such as transmutations, requires large amounts of energy per particle. The required energy density is far larger than the energy densities manipulated by known molecular biology systems which function of the scale of chemical reactions. In addition, known nuclear reactions produce ionizing radiation, which has not been detected and would be damaging to biological systems.
Orthodox physicists say that all chemical reactions are subject to physical laws, and biological reactions are also chemical reactions, thus they are subject to the same underlying laws of physics. Orthodox chemists say that these transmutations go against the laws of orthodox chemistry, and equate them to alchemy. The current evidence for transmutation is not convincing. If transmutation was ever reliably proved and replicated, then a paradigm shift would happen, and all natural sciences would have to be changed to adapt to the new evidence. Scientists laboring in alternatives fields like biological transmutation have the hope that one of the basic principles of physics happens to be wrong, and that their works causes such a paradigm shift, giving them personal fame, and advancing the scientific knowledge by a huge degree.
Defenders of the transmutation hypothesis have suggested some explanatory theories. To this day, these theories have not been mentioned, corroborated or developed by other scientists.
Proponents state that the strong interactions that take place in known nuclear processes (particle accelerators, atomic bombs, nuclear reactors, or stars) do not rule out that other nuclear processes may rely on the so-called "weak" interactions. Kervran introduced a new theory of "weak" interactions by "neutral currents", claiming that the enzymes can not only facilitate chemical reactions but also facilitate biological transmutations. Kervran proposed the idea that a sea of neutrinos or bosons brings high energy to the reaction and carries away the excess energy and the possibility of radioactive products, thus addressing some criticism.
Another supporter of Biological transmutations can be found in Solomon Goldfein who noted that MgATP (Magnesium-Adenosine Triphosphate) had the configuration of a cyclotron on a molecular scale. There has been no reported follow ups to Goldfein's work and again it lies well outside mainstream physics, biology, and coordination chemistry.
In 2003, Russian researchers claimed to have converted nuclear waste into non-radioactive elements using microbiological cultures, as well as the transmutation of manganese into iron in microbiological cultures. 
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Tibor Müller, Harmund Müller (2003), Modelling in natural sciences: design, validation, and case studies (illustrated ed.), Springer, pp. 24-29, ISBN 3540001530, http://books.google.es/books?id=bxu-n2j-E_8C&dq=biological+transmutation&source=gbs_navlinks_s
- ↑ Winners of the Ig® Nobel Prize, Improbable Research, http://www.improbable.com/ig/ig-pastwinners.html
- ↑ Louis Kervran, "Biological evidence of low energy transmutations", Maloine, 1975 (See "Final Note" by Costa de Beauregard)
- ↑ Louis Kervran, "Biological Transmutations and Modern Physics", Maloine, 1982, p.40ff.
- ↑ Report 2247 (May 1978), "Energy Development from Elemental Transmutations in Biological Systems" for the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command, Ft. Belvoir, Va. Goldfein
- ↑ Sources:
- Vysotskii, V., et al. "Successful Experiments On Utilization Of High-Activity Waste In The Process Of Transmutation In Growing Associations Of Microbiological Cultures". in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA
- Vladimir I. Vysotskii, Alla A. Kornilova, Igor I. Samoylenko (1998), "Experimental discovery and investigation of the phenomenon of low-energy nuclear transmutation of isotopes of metals (Mn55 TO Fe57) in growing biological cultures", in Philippe Collery, Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine, Volumen 5, John Libbey Eurotext, pp. 77-82, ISBN 2742002146, http://books.google.es/books?id=WjSZx-r0WsMC