Structure of sunEdit

Name depth density Temperature remark
Core 0~ 0.25Rs150,000 kg/m³ (150 times the density of water on Earth) 13,600,000 kelvin or 0.2Rs
Radiative zone 0.25~0.7 The density drops a hundredfold (from 20 g/cm³ to only 0.2 g/cm³) from the bottom to the top of the radiative zone.[1] from 7,000,000 °C to about 2,000,000 °C
Convective zone 0.7~ 1.0 0.2 g/m³ (about 1/10,000th the density of air at sea level).[2] the temperature has dropped to 5,700° K
Photosphere tens to hundreds of kilometers thick ~1023 m−3 (this is about 1% of the particle density of Earth's atmosphere at sea level).[1] 6,000 K,

ICF mechanism of action Edit

In a "hydrogen bomb" the fusion fuel is compressed and heated with a separate fission bomb. A variety of mechanisms transfers the energy of the "trigger"'s explosion into the fusion fuel. The use of a nuclear bomb to ignite a fusion reaction makes the concept less than useful as a power source. Not only would the triggers be prohibitively expensive to produce, but there is a minimum size that such a bomb can be built, defined roughly by the critical mass of the plutonium fuel used. Generally it seems difficult to build nuclear devices smaller than about 1 kiloton in size, which would make it a difficult engineering problem to extract power from the resulting explosions. Also the smaller a thermonuclear bomb is, the "dirtier" it is, that is to say, the percentage of energy produced in the explosion by fusion is decreased while the percent produced by fission reactions tends toward unity (100%). This did not stop efforts to design such a system however, leading to the PACER concept.

If some source of compression could be found, other than a nuclear bomb, then the size of the reaction could be scaled down. This idea has been of intense interest to both the bomb-making and fusion energy communities. It was not until the 1970s that a potential solution appeared in the form of very large, very high power, high energy lasers, which were then being built for weapons and other research. The D-T mix in such a system is known as a target, containing much less fuel than in a bomb design (often only micro or milligrams), and leading to a much smaller explosive force.[3][4]

Generally ICF systems use a single laser, the driver, whose beam is split up into a number of beams which are subsequently individually amplified by a trillion times or more. These are sent into the reaction chamber (called a target chamber) by a number of mirrors, positioned in order to illuminate the target evenly over its whole surface. The heat applied by the driver causes the outer layer of the target to explode, just as the outer layers of an H-bomb's fuel cylinder do when illuminated by the X-rays of the nuclear device.

The material exploding off the surface causes the remaining material on the inside to be driven inwards with great force, eventually collapsing into a tiny near-spherical ball. In modern ICF devices the density of the resulting fuel mixture is as much as one-hundred times the density of lead, around 1000 g/cm³. This density is not high enough to create any useful rate of fusion on its own. However, during the collapse of the fuel, shock waves also form and travel into the center of the fuel at high speed. When they meet their counterparts moving in from the other sides of the fuel in the center, the density of that spot is raised much further.

Given the correct conditions, the fusion rate in the region highly compressed by the shock wave can give off significant amounts of highly energetic alpha particles. Due to the high density of the surrounding fuel, they move only a short distance before being "thermalized", losing their energy to the fuel as heat. This additional energy will cause additional fusion reactions in the heated fuel, giving off more high-energy particles. This process spreads outward from the center, leading to a kind of self sustaining burn known as ignition.

Inertial confinement fusion

Schematic of the stages of inertial confinement fusion using lasers. The blue arrows represent radiation; orange is blowoff; purple is inwardly transported thermal energy.
1. Laser beams or laser-produced X-rays rapidly heat the surface of the fusion target, forming a surrounding plasma envelope.
2. Fuel is compressed by the rocket-like blowoff of the hot surface material.
3. During the final part of the capsule implosion, the fuel core reaches 20 times the density of lead and ignites at 100,000,000 ˚C.
4. Thermonuclear burn spreads rapidly through the compressed fuel, yielding many times the input energy.

Inverse biquadrate force and Photogravitational massEdit

In the inverse biquadrate scheme, Gravitational mass of the Sun is given as follows,

$ M_s = (d_{ms})^5 (\omega_{ms})^2 / G'' $

where G" =9.431 $ 10^8 m^5/kg/sec^2 $

Gravitational density of moon is $ 228.4 ton/m^3 $ Gravitational density of sun is $ 6.78*228.4 ton/m^3 $

Above values are photo-gravitational mass which is given as follows,

$ m_{pg} = m_i T_s /T_0 $

And the inertial density of the sun is determined with structure of the sun, Example is given for Structure of the Earth

Simple calculation gives a temperature of radiative zone about 23067K with gravitational mass  density of 1548$ ton/m^3 $

Name Depth Density Temperature density(pg) Temperature(D/Dpg) Remark
Core 0~ 0.25Rs 150 ton/m³ 13,600,000 kelvin 1,148,563.5 2,281,812.8°K   0.2Rs
Radiative zone 0.25~0.7 20 g/cm³ 4,500,000 °C 1,548 23,067°K 0.2 g/cm³
Convective zone 0.7~ 1.0 0.2 g/cm³ 5,700° K 3.826 5,700°K
Photosphere 50 kilometer ~1023 m−3 6,000 K,  - 6,000°K 10s~100s

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Nasa – Sun". (2007-11-29). Retrieved on 2009-07-11.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NASA1
  3. Inertial Fusion Energy
  4. Inertial Fusion Energy: A Tutorial on the Technology and Economics