Eighth stream elements are Phosphorus, Copper(Zinc), Antimony(Neodymium).

Occurrence of PhosphorusEdit

Due to its reactivity with air and many other oxygen-containing substances, phosphorus is not found free in nature but it is widely distributed in many different minerals.

Phosphate rock, which is partially made of apatite (an impure tri-calcium phosphate mineral), is an important commercial source of this element. About 50 percent of the global phosphorus reserves are in the Arab nations.[1] Large deposits of apatite are located in China, Russia, Morocco, Florida, Idaho, Tennessee, Utah, and elsewhere. Albright and Wilson in the United Kingdom and their Niagara Falls plant, for instance, were using phosphate rock in the 1890s and 1900s from Connetable, Tennessee and Florida; by 1950 they were using phosphate rock mainly from Tennessee and North Africa.[2] In the early 1990s Albright and Wilson's purified wet phosphoric acid business was being adversely affected by phosphate rock sales by China and the entry of their long-standing Moroccan phosphate suppliers into the purified wet phosphoric acid business.[3]

In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years.[4] However, scientists are now claiming that a "Peak Phosphorus" will occur in 30 years and that "At current rates, reserves will be depleted in the next 50 to 100 years."[5]

Occurrence of CopperEdit

Kupfer mineral erz

Native copper, ca. 4×2 cm.

Copper can be found as native copper in mineral form (for example, in Michigan's Keewenaw Peninsula). It is a polycrystal, with the largest single crystals measuring 4.4×3.2×3.2 cm.[6] Minerals such as the sulfides: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), bornite (Cu5FeS4), covellite (CuS), chalcocite (Cu2S) are sources of copper, as are the carbonates: azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2) and malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2) and the oxide: cuprite (Cu2O).[7]

Production of AntimonyEdit

File:Antimony (mined)2.PNG
Antimony - world production trend

World production trend of antimony

Even though this element is not abundant, it is found in over 100 mineral species. Antimony is sometimes found native, but more frequently it is found in the sulfide stibnite (Sb2S3) which is the predominant ore mineral. Commercial forms of antimony are generally ingots, broken pieces, granules, and cast cake. Other forms are powder, shot, and single crystals.

In 2005, China was the top producer of antimony with about 84% world share followed at a distance by South Africa, Bolivia and Tajikistan, reports the British Geological Survey. The mine with the largest deposites in China is Xikuangshan mine in Hunan Province with a estimated deposit of 2.1 million metric tons.[8]

Country Tonnes  % of total
Template:Country data People's Republic of China 126,000 84.0
Template:Country data South Africa 6,000 4.0
Template:Country data Bolivia 5,225 3.5
Template:Country data Tajikistan 4,073 2.7
Template:Country data Russia 3,000 2.0
Top 5 144,298 96.2
Total world 150,000 100.0

Chiffres de 2003, métal contenue dans les minerais et concentrés, source: L'état du monde 2005 Template:Fr


  1. "Phosphate Rock: Statistics and Information". USGS. Retrieved on 2009-06-06.
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named threlfall
  3. Podger, Hugh (2002). Albright & Wilson. The Last 50 years. Studley: Brewin Books. ISBN 1-85858-223-7 pp. 297–298.
  4. "How Long Will it Last?". New Scientist 194 (2605): 38–39. May 26, 2007. ISSN 4079 0262 4079. 
  5. Lewis, Leo (2008-06-23). "Scientists warn of lack of vital phosphorus as biofuels raise demand", The Times. 
  6. P. C. Rickwood (1981). "The largest crystals". American Mineralogist 66: 885, 
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CRC
  8. Peng, J (2003). "Samarium–neodymium isotope systematics of hydrothermal calcites from the Xikuangshan antimony deposit (Hunan, China): the potential of calcite as a geochronometer". Chemical Geology 200: 129. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(03)00187-6.