An electroject is an electric current which travels around the E region of the Earth's ionosphere. There are three electrojets: above the magnetic equator (the equatorial electrojet), and near the Northern and Southern Polar Circles (the Auroral Electrojets). Electrojets are Hall currents carried primarily by electrons at altitudes from 100 to 150 km. In this region the electron gyro frequency (Larmor frequency) is much greater than the electron-neutral collision frequency. In contrast, the principle E region ions (O2+ and NO+) have gyrofrequencies much lower than the ion-neutral collision frequency.

Kristian Birkeland was the first to suggest that polar electric currents (or auroral electrojets) are connected to a system of filaments (now called "Birkeland currents") that flow along geomagnetic field lines into and away from the polar region.

Equatorial Electrojet Edit

The worldwide solar-driven wind results in the so-called Sq (solar quiet) current system in the E region of the Earth's ionosphere (100-130 km altitude). Resulting from this current is an electrostatic field directed E-W (dawn-dusk) in the equatorial day side of the ionosphere. At the magnetic dip equator, where the geomagnetic field is horizontal, this electric field results in an enhanced eastward current flow within ± 3 degrees of the magnetic equator, known as the equatorial electrojet.