Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms. In the atmospheric electrical discharge, a leader of a bolt of lightning can travel at speeds of Template:Convert/m/s, and can reach temperatures approaching /</span> , hot enough to fuse silica sand into petrified lightning, known scientifically as glass channels or fulgurites which are normally hollow and can extend some distance into the ground. There are some 16 million lightning storms in the world every year. For an American, the chance of being struck by lightning is approximately 1 in 576,000 and the chance of actually being killed by lightning is approximately 1 in 2,320,000.
How lightning initially forms is still a matter of debate: Scientists have studied root causes ranging from atmospheric perturbations (wind, humidity, friction, and atmospheric pressure) to the impact of solar wind and accumulation of charged solar particles. Ice inside a cloud is thought to be a key element in lightning development, and may cause a forcible separation of positive and negative charges within the cloud, thus assisting in the formation of lightning.
Historical scientific researchEdit
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) endeavored to test the theory that sparks shared some similarity with lightning using a spire which was being erected in Philadelphia. While waiting for completion of the spire, he got the idea of instead using a flying object, such as a kite. During the next thunderstorm, which was in June 1752, it was reported that he raised a kite, accompanied by his son as an assistant. On his end of the string he attached a key, and he tied it to a post with a silk thread. As time passed, Franklin noticed the loose fibers on the string stretching out; he then brought his hand close to the key and a spark jumped the gap. The rain which had fallen during the storm had soaked the line and made it conductive.
Franklin was not the first to perform the kite experiment. Thomas-François Dalibard and De Lors conducted it at Marly-la-Ville in France, a few weeks before Franklin's experiment. In his autobiography (written 1771-1788, first published 1790), Franklin clearly states that he performed this experiment after those in France, which occurred weeks before his own experiment, without his prior knowledge as of 1752.
As news of the experiment and its particulars spread, others attempted to replicate it. However, experiments involving lightning are always risky and frequently fatal. One of the most well-known deaths during the spate of Franklin imitators was that of Professor George Richmann of Saint Petersburg, Russia. He created a set-up similar to Franklin's, and was attending a meeting of the Academy of Sciences when he heard thunder. He ran home with his engraver to capture the event for posterity. According to reports, while the experiment was under way, ball lightning appeared and collided with Richmann's head, killing him.
Although experiments from the past time of Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was a discharge of static electricity, there was little improvement in theoretical understanding of lightning (in particular how it was generated) for more than 150 years. The impetus for new research came from the field of power engineering: as power transmission lines came into service, engineers needed to know much more about lightning in order to adequately protect lines and equipment.
Properties of LightningEdit
An average bolt of lightning carries an electric current of 40 kiloamperes (kA), and transfers a charge of five coulombs and 500 MJ. Large bolts of lightning can carry up to 120 kA and 350 coulombs. The voltage depends on the length of the bolt, with the dielectric breakdown of air being three million volts per metre; this works out to approximately one gigavolt (one thousand million volts) for a 300 m (1000 ft) lightning bolt. With an electric current of 100 kA, this gives a power of 100 terawatts. However, lightning leader development is not a simple matter of dielectric breakdown, and the ambient electric fields required for lightning leader propagation can be a few orders of magnitude less than dielectric breakdown strength. Further, the potential gradient inside a well-developed return-stroke channel is on the order of hundreds of volts per metre or less due to intense channel ionisation, resulting in a true power output on the order of megawatts per metre for a vigorous return-stroke current of 100 kA.
Lightning heats nearby air to about / nearly instantly, which is almost twice the temperature of the Sun’s surface. The air around a lightning strike is the hottest place on earth. The heating creates a shock wave that is heard as thunder.
The return stroke of a lightning bolt follows a charge channel only about a centimetre (0.4-in) wide. Most lightning bolts are about 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) long. The longest recorded length was 190 kilometres (118 mi), sighted near Dallas, Texas.
Different locations have different potentials (voltages)and currents for an average lightning strike. For example, Florida, with the United States' largest number of recorded strikes in a given period during the summer season, has very sandy ground in some areas and conductive saturated mucky soil in others. As much of Florida lies on a peninsula, it is bordered by the ocean on three sides. The result is the daily development of sea and lake breeze boundaries that collide and produce thunderstorms. Arizona, which has very dry, sandy soil and a very dry air, has cloud bases as high as 1800-2100 m (6,000-7,000 ft) above ground level, and gets very long and thin purplish discharges which crackle; while Oklahoma, with cloud bases about 450-600 m (1,500-2,000 ft) above ground level and fairly soft, clay-rich soil, has big, blue-white explosive lightning strikes that are very hot (high current) and cause sudden, explosive noise when the discharge comes. The difference in each case may consist of differences in voltage levels between clouds and ground. Research on this is still ongoing.
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NASA scientists have found the radio waves created by lightning clear a safe zone in the radiation belt surrounding the earth. This zone, known as the Van Allen Belt slot, can potentially be a safe haven for satellites, offering them protection from the Sun's radiation.
- Positive lightning (a rarer form of lightning that originates from positively charged regions of the thundercloud) does not generally fit the following pattern.
The first process in the generation of lightning is charge separation.
Polarization mechanism hypothesisEdit
The mechanism by which charge separation happens is still the subject of research, but one hypothesis is the polarization mechanism, which has two components:
- Falling droplets of ice and rain become electrically polarized as they fall through the atmosphere's natural electric field;
- Colliding ice particles become charged by electrostatic induction.
Ice and supercooled water are the keys to the process. Violent winds buffet tiny hailstones as they form, causing them to collide. When the hailstones hit ice crystals, some negative ions transfer from one particle to another. The smaller, lighter particles lose negative ions and become positive; the larger, more massive particles gain negative ions and become negative.
Electrostatic induction hypothesisEdit
According to the electrostatic induction hypothesis charges are driven apart by as-yet uncertain processes. Charge separation appears to require strong updrafts which carry water droplets upward, supercooling them to between -10 and -20 °C. These collide with ice crystals to form a soft ice-water mixture called graupel. The collisions result in a slight positive charge being transferred to ice crystals, and a slight negative charge to the graupel. Updrafts drive lighter ice crystals upwards, causing the cloud top to accumulate increasing positive charge. The heavier negatively charged graupel falls towards the middle and lower portions of the cloud, building up an increasing negative charge. Charge separation and accumulation continue until the electrical potential becomes sufficient to initiate lightning discharges, which occurs when the gathering of positive and negative charges forms a sufficiently strong electric field.
There are several additional hypotheses for the origin of charge separation.
As a thundercloud moves over the Earth's surface, an equal but opposite charge is induced in the Earth below, and the induced ground charge follows the movement of the cloud.
An initial bipolar discharge, or path of ionized air, starts from a negatively charged mixed water and ice region in the thundercloud. The discharge ionized channels are called leaders. The negative charged leaders, called a "stepped leader", proceed generally downward in a number of quick jumps, each up to 50 metres long. Along the way, the stepped leader may branch into a number of paths as it continues to descend. The progression of stepped leaders takes a comparatively long time (hundreds of milliseconds) to approach the ground. This initial phase involves a relatively small electric current (tens or hundreds of amperes), and the leader is almost invisible compared to the subsequent lightning channel.
When a stepped leader approaches the ground, the presence of opposite charges on the ground enhances the electric field. The electric field is highest on trees and tall buildings. If the electric field is strong enough, a conductive discharge (called a positive streamer) can develop from these points. This was first theorized by Heinz Kasemir. As the field increases, the positive streamer may evolve into a hotter, higher current leader which eventually connects to the descending stepped leader from the cloud. It is also possible for many streamers to develop from many different objects simultaneously, with only one connecting with the leader and forming the main discharge path. Photographs have been taken on which non-connected streamers are clearly visible. When the two leaders meet, the electric current greatly increases. The region of high current propagates back up the positive stepped leader into the cloud with a "return stroke" that is the most luminous part of the lightning discharge.
When the electric field becomes strong enough, an electrical discharge (the bolt of lightning) occurs within clouds or between clouds and the ground. During the strike, successive portions of air become a conductive discharge channel as the electrons and positive ions of air molecules are pulled away from each other and forced to flow in opposite directions.
The electrical discharge rapidly superheats the discharge channel, causing the air to expand rapidly and produce a shock wave heard as thunder. The rolling and gradually dissipating rumble of thunder is caused by the time delay of sound coming from different portions of a long stroke.
Gurevich's runaway breakdown theoryEdit
- Main article: Runaway breakdown
A theory of lightning initiation, known as the "runaway breakdown theory", proposed by Aleksandr Gurevich of the Lebedev Physical Institute in 1992 suggests that lightning strikes are triggered by cosmic rays which ionize atoms, releasing electrons that are accelerated by the electric fields, ionizing other air molecules and making the air conductive by a runaway breakdown, then "seeding" a lightning strike.
Gamma rays and the runaway breakdown theory Edit
It has been discovered in the past 15 years that among the processes of lightning is some mechanism capable of generating gamma rays, which escape the atmosphere and are observed by orbiting spacecraft. Brought to light by NASA's Gerald Fishman in 1994 in an article in Science, these so-called Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) were observed by accident, while he was documenting instances of extraterrestrial gamma ray bursts observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). TGFs are much shorter in duration, however, lasting only about 1 ms.
Professor Umran Inan of Stanford University linked a TGF to an individual lightning stroke occurring within 1.5 ms of the TGF event, proving for the first time that the TGF was of atmospheric origin and associated with lightning strikes.
CGRO recorded only about 77 events in 10 years; however, more recently the RHESSI spacecraft, as reported by David Smith of UC Santa Cruz, has been observing TGFs at a much higher rate, indicating that these occur about 50 times per day globally (still a very small fraction of the total lightning on the planet). The voltage levels recorded exceed 20 MeV.
Scientists from Duke University have also been studying the link between certain lightning events and the mysterious gamma ray emissions that emanate from the Earth's own atmosphere, in light of newer observations of TGFs made by RHESSI. Their study suggests that this gamma radiation fountains upward from starting points at surprisingly low altitudes in thunderclouds.
Steven Cummer, from Duke University's Pratt School of Engineering, said, "These are higher energy gamma rays than come from the sun. And yet here they are coming from the kind of terrestrial thunderstorm that we see here all the time."
Early hypotheses of this pointed to lightning generating high electric fields at altitudes well above the cloud, where the thin atmosphere allows gamma rays to easily escape into space, known as "relativistic runaway breakdown", similar to the way sprites are generated. Subsequent evidence has cast doubt, though, and suggested instead that TGFs may be produced at the tops of high thunderclouds. Though hindered by atmospheric absorption of the escaping gamma rays, these theories do not require the exceptionally high electric fields that high altitude theories of TGF generation rely on.
The role of TGFs and their relationship to lightning remains a subject of ongoing scientific study.
Re-strikeEditHigh speed videos (examined frame-by frame) show that most lightning strikes are made up of multiple individual strokes. A typical strike is made of 3 to 4 strokes. There may be more.
Each successive stroke is preceded by intermediate dart leader strokes again to, but weaker than, the initial stepped leader. The stroke usually re-uses the discharge channel taken by the previous stroke.
The variations in successive discharges are the result of smaller regions of charge within the cloud being depleted by successive strokes.
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The sound of thunder from a lightning strike is prolonged by successive strokes.
Types of lightningEdit
Some lightning strikes take on particular characteristics; scientists and the public have given names to these various types of lightning. Most lightning is streak lightning. This is nothing more than the return stroke, the visible part of the lightning stroke. Because most of these strokes occur inside a cloud, we do not see many of the individual return strokes in a thunderstorm.
The return stroke of a lightning bolt, which is the visible bolt itself, follows a charge channel only about a half-inch (1.3 cm) wide. Most lightning bolts are about a mile (1.6 km) long.
Positive lightning, also known colloquially as "bolts from the blue", makes up less than 5% of all lightning. It occurs when the leader forms at the positively charged cloud tops, with the consequence that a negatively charged streamer issues from the ground. The overall effect is a discharge of positive charges to the ground. Research carried out after the discovery of positive lightning in the 1970s showed that positive lightning bolts are typically six to ten times more powerful than negative bolts, last around ten times longer, and can strike tens of kilometres/miles from the clouds. The voltage difference for positive lightning must be considerably higher, due to the tens of thousands of additional metres/feet the strike must travel. During a positive lightning strike, huge quantities of ELF and VLF radio waves are generated.
As a result of their greater power, positive lightning strikes are considerably more dangerous. At the present time, aircraft are not designed to withstand such strikes, since their existence was unknown at the time standards were set, and the dangers unappreciated until the destruction of a glider in 1999.
One type of positive lightning is Anvil to Ground, since it emanates from the anvil top of a cumulonimbus cloud where the ice crystals are positively charged. The leader stroke of lightning issues forth in a nearly horizontal direction until it veers toward the ground. These usually occur kilometers/miles from (and often ahead of) the main storm and will sometimes strike without warning on a sunny day. An anvil-to-ground lightning bolt is a sign of an approaching storm, and if one occurs in a largely clear sky, it is known colloquially as a "Bolt from the blue."
Positive lightning is also now believed to have been responsible for the 1963 in-flight explosion and subsequent crash of Pan Am Flight 214, a Boeing 707. Due to the dangers of lightning, aircraft operating in U.S. airspace have been required to have lightning discharge wicks to reduce the damage by a lightning strike, but these measures may be insufficient for positive lightning.
An average bolt of positive lightning carries a current of up to 300 kA (kiloamperes) (about ten times as much current as a bolt of negative lightning), transfers a charge of up to 300 coulombs, has a potential difference up to 1 gigavolt (one billion volts), and lasts for hundreds of milliseconds, with a discharge energy of up to 300 GJ (gigajoules) (a billion joules).
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Lightning discharges may occur between areas of cloud having different potentials without contacting the ground. These are most common between the anvil and lower reaches of a given thunderstorm. This lightning can sometimes be observed at great distances at night as so-called "heat lightning". In such instances, the observer may see only a flash of light without thunder. The "heat" portion of the term is a folk association between locally experienced warmth and the distant lightning flashes.
Another terminology used for cloud-cloud or cloud-cloud-ground lightning is "Anvil Crawler", due to the habit of the charge typically originating from beneath or within the anvil and scrambling through the upper cloud layers of a thunderstorm, normally generating multiple branch strokes which are dramatic to witness. These are usually seen as a thunderstorm passes over you or begins to decay. The most vivid crawler behavior occurs in well developed thunderstorms that feature extensive rear anvil shearing.
- Main article: Dry lightning
Dry lightning is a term in the United States for lightning that occurs with no precipitation at the surface. This type of lightning is the most common natural cause of wildfires.
Cloud-to-ground lightning is a great lightning discharge between a cumulonimbus cloud and the ground initiated by the downward-moving leader stroke. This is the second most common type of lightning, and poses the greatest threat to life and property of all known types.
Bead lightning is a type of cloud-to-ground lightning which appears to break up into a string of short, bright sections, which last longer than the usual discharge channel. It is fairly rare. Several theories have been proposed to explain it; one is that the observer sees portions of the lightning channel end on, and that these portions appear especially bright. Another is that, in bead lightning, the width of the lightning channel varies; as the lightning channel cools and fades, the wider sections cool more slowly and remain visible longer, appearing as a string of beads.
Ribbon lightning occurs in thunderstorms with high cross winds and multiple return strokes. The wind will blow each successive return stroke slightly to one side of the previous return stroke, causing a ribbon effect.
Staccato lightning is a cloud to ground lightning strike which is a short-duration stroke that appears as a single very bright flash and often has considerable branching.
Ground-to-cloud lightning is a lightning discharge between the ground and a cumulonimbus cloud from an upward-moving leader stroke.
- Main article: Ball lightning
Ball lightning is described as a floating, illuminated ball that occurs during thunderstorms. They can be fast moving, slow moving or nearly stationary. Some make hissing or crackling noises or no noise at all. Some have been known to pass through windows and even dissipate with a bang. Ball lightning has been described by eyewitnesses but rarely recorded by meteorologists.
The engineer Nikola Tesla wrote, "I have succeeded in determining the mode of their formation and producing them artificially". There is some speculation that electrical breakdown and arcing of cotton and gutta-percha wire insulation used by Tesla may have been a contributing factor, since some theories of ball lightning require the involvement of carbonaceous materials. Some later experimenters have been able to briefly produce small luminous balls by igniting carbon-containing materials atop sparking Tesla Coils.
Several theories have been advanced to describe ball lightning, with none being universally accepted. Any complete theory of ball lightning must be able to describe the wide range of reported properties, such as those described in Singer's book "The Nature of Ball Lightning" and also more contemporary research. Japanese research shows that several instances have been reported of ball lightning without any connection to stormy weather or lightning.
Ball lightning is typically 20-30 cm (8-12 inches) in diameter, but ball lightning several metres in diameter has been reported. Ball lightning has been seen in tornadoes, and has also been seen to split apart into two or more separate balls and recombine, and vertically linked fireballs have been reported.
- See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name Ball lightning has carved trenches in the peat swamps in Ireland.
- See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name Because of its strange behaviour, ball lightning has been mistaken for alien spacecraft by many witnesses, which often spawns UFO reports. One theory that may account for this wider spectrum of observational evidence is the idea of combustion inside the low-velocity region of axisymmetric (spherical) vortex breakdown of a natural vortex (e.g., the 'Hill's spherical vortex').
Ball lightning apparently is created when lightning strikes silicon in soil, and has been created in a lab in this manner.
- Main article: Upper-atmospheric lightning
Reports by scientists of strange lightning phenomena above storms date back to at least 1886. However, it is only in recent years that fuller investigations have been made. This has sometimes been called megalightning.
Sprites are now well-documented electrical discharges that occur high above some types of thunderstorms. They appear as luminous reddish-orange or greenish-blue, plasma-like flashes, last longer than normal lower stratospheric discharges (typically around 17 milliseconds), and are triggered by the discharges of positive lightning between the thundercloud and the ground. Sprites often occur in clusters of two or more, and typically span the distance from Template:Mi to km to Template:Mi to km above the earth, with what appear to be tendrils hanging below, and branches reaching above. A 2007 paper reports that the apparent tendrils and branches of sprites are actually formed by bright streamer heads of less than 140 m diameter moving up or down at 1 to 10 percent of the speed of light. The abstract is publicly accessible.
Sprites may be horizontally displaced by up to Template:Mi to km from the location of the underlying lightning strike, with a time delay following the lightning that is typically a few milliseconds, but on rare occasions may be up to 100 milliseconds. Sprites are sometimes, but not always, preceded by a sprite halo, a broad, pancake-like region of transient optical emission centred at an altitude of about Template:Mi to km above lightning. Sprite halos are produced by weak ionization from transient electric fields of the same type that causes sprites, but which are insufficiently intense to exceed the threshold needed for sprites. Sprites were first photographed on July 6, 1989 by scientists from the University of Minnesota. Several years after their discovery they were named after the mischievous sprite (air spirit) Puck in Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream.
Recent research carried out at the University of Houston in 2002 indicates that some normal (negative) lightning discharges produce a sprite halo, the precursor of a sprite, and that every lightning bolt between cloud and ground attempts to produce a sprite or a sprite halo.
- See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name Research in 2004 by scientists from Tohoku University found that very low frequency emissions occur at the same time as the sprite, indicating that a discharge within the cloud may generate the sprites.
Blue jets differ from sprites in that they project from the top of the cumulonimbus above a thunderstorm, typically in a narrow cone, to the lowest levels of the ionosphere Template:Mi to km to Template:Mi to km above the earth.
- See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name They are also brighter than sprites and, as implied by their name, are blue in colour. They were first recorded on October 21 1989, on a video taken from the space shuttle as it passed over Australia, and subsequently extensively documented in 1994 during aircraft research flights by the University of Alaska.
On September 14 2001, scientists at the Arecibo Observatory photographed a huge jet double the height of those previously observed, reaching around Template:Mi to km into the atmosphere. The jet was located above a thunderstorm over the ocean, and lasted under a second. Lightning was initially observed traveling up at around 50,000 m/s in a similar way to a typical blue jet, but then divided in two and sped at 250,000 m/s to the ionosphere, where they spread out in a bright burst of light. On July 22 2002, five gigantic jets between 60 and 70 km (35 to 45 miles) in length were observed over the South China Sea from Taiwan, reported in Nature. The jets lasted under a second, with shapes likened by the researchers to giant trees and carrots.
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In 2001, the Arecibo scientists modeled the blue-jet phenomenon to better understand how it works. It is like an electron avalanche that can flood up toward the ionosphere or slide earthward, depending on the electric field direction. Intense hail may trigger the avalanche. The field accelerates the electrons and slams them into air molecules. The molecules break down into ions and free electrons and emit light. The newly generated electrons also accelerate.
Elves often appear as dim, flattened, expanding glows around Template:Mi to km in diameter that last for, typically, just one millisecond. They occur in the ionosphere Template:Mi to km above the ground over thunderstorms. Their color was a puzzle for some time, but is now believed to be a red hue. Elves were first recorded on another shuttle mission, this time recorded off French Guiana on October 7, 1990. Elves is a frivolous acronym for Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations from Electromagnetic Pulse Sources.
- See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name This refers to the process by which the light is generated; the excitation of nitrogen molecules due to electron collisions (the electrons possibly having been energized by the electromagnetic pulse caused by a discharge from the Ionosphere).
Lightning has been triggered directly by human activity in several instances. Lightning struck Apollo 12 soon after takeoff, and has struck soon after thermonuclear explosions. It has also been triggered by launching lightning rockets carrying spools of wire into thunderstorms. The wire unwinds as the rocket ascends, providing a path for lightning. These bolts are typically very straight due to the path created by the wire.
Flying aircraft can also trigger lightning.
Extremely large volcanic eruptions, which eject gases and material high into the atmosphere, can trigger lightning. This phenomenon was documented by Pliny The Elder during the AD79 eruption of Vesuvius, in which he perished.
Since the 1970s, researchers have attempted to trigger lightning strikes by means of infrared or ultraviolet lasers, which create a channel of ionized gas through which the lightning would be conducted to ground. Such triggered lightning is intended to protect rocket launching pads, electric power facilities, and other sensitive targets.
In New Mexico, U.S., scientists tested a new terawatt laser which provoked lightning. Scientists fired ultra-fast pulses from an extremely powerful laser thus sending several terawatts into the clouds to call down electrical discharges in storm clouds over the region. The laser beams sent from the laser make channels of ionized molecules known as "filaments". Before the lightning strikes earth, the filaments lead electricity through the clouds, playing the role of lightning rods. Researchers generated filaments that lived too short a period to trigger a real lightning strike. Nevertheless, a boost in electrical activity within the clouds was registered. According to the French and German scientists, who ran the experiment, the fast pulses sent from the laser will be able to provoke lightning strikes on demand. Statistical analysis showed that their laser pulses indeed enhanced the electrical activity in the thundercloud where it was aimed—in effect they generated small local discharges located at the position of the plasma channels.
Lightning requires the electrical breakdown of a gas, so it cannot exist in a visual form in the vacuum of space. However, lightning has been observed within the atmospheres of other planets, such as Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. Lightning on Venus is still a controversial subject after decades of study. During the Soviet Venera and U.S. Pioneer missions of the 1970s and '80s, signals suggesting lightning may be present in the upper atmosphere were detected. However, recently the Cassini-Huygens mission fly-by of Venus detected no signs of lightning at all. Despite this, in 2007, radio pulses recorded by the spacecraft Venus Express confirmed lightning on Venus.(S&T, Mar. 2008)
Trees and lightningEditTrees are frequent conductors of lightning to the ground. Since sap is a poor conductor, its electrical resistance causes it to be heated explosively into steam, which blows off the bark outside the lightning's path. In following seasons trees overgrow the damaged area and may cover it completely, leaving only a vertical scar. If the damage is severe, the tree may not be able to recover, and decay sets in, eventually killing the tree. It is commonly thought that a tree standing alone is more frequently struck, though in some forested areas, lightning scars can be seen on almost every tree.
The two most frequently struck tree types are the oak and the elm. Pine trees are also quite often hit by lightning. Unlike the oak, which has a relatively shallow root structure, pine trees have a deep central root system that goes down into the water table. Pine trees usually stand taller than other species, which also makes them a likely target. Factors which lead to its being targeted are a high resin content, loftiness, and its needles which lend themselves to a high electrical discharge during a thunderstorm.
Trees are natural lightning conductors, and are known to provide protection against lightning damages to the nearby buildings. Tall trees with high biomass for the root system provide good lightning protection. An example is the teak tree (Tectona grandis), which grows to a height of 45 metres (147.6 ft). It has a spread root system with a spread of 5 m and a biomass of 4 times that of the trunk; its penetration into the soil is 1.25 metres (4.10 ft) and has no tap root. When planted near a building, its height helps in catching the oncoming lightning leader, and the high biomass of the root system helps in dissipation of the lightning charges.
Lightning currents have a very fast risetime, on the order of 40 kA per microsecond. Hence, conductors of such currents exhibit marked skin effect, causing most of the currents to flow through the conductor skin. The effective resistance of the conductor is consequently very high and therefore, the conductor skin gets heated up much more than the conductor core. When a tree acts as a natural lightning conductor, due to skin effect most of the lightning currents flow through the skin of the tree and the sap wood. As a result, the skin gets burnt and may even peel off. The moisture in the skin and the sap wood evaporates instantaneously and may get split. If the tree struck by lightning is a teak tree (single stemmed with branches) it may not be completely destroyed since only the tree skin and a branch may be affected; the major parts of the tree may be saved from complete destruction due to lightning currents. But if the tree involved is a coconut tree it may be completely destroyed by the lightning currents.
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Lightning strikes on sandy soil can produce fulgurites. These root-shaped tubes of melted and fused sand grains are sometimes called petrified lightning.
X-rays and lightningEdit
The production of X-rays by a bolt of lightning was theoretically predicted as early as 1925 but no evidence was found until 2001/2002, when researchers at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, detected x-ray emissions from an induced lightning strike along a wire trailed behind a rocket shot into a storm cloud. In the same year University of Florida and Florida Tech researchers used an array of electric field and X-ray detectors at a lightning research facility in North Florida to confirm that natural lightning makes X-rays in large quantities. The cause of the X-ray emissions is still a matter for research. The temperature of lightning is too cold to account for the X-rays observed.
Because the electrostatic discharge of terrestrial lightning superheats the air to plasma temperatures along the length of the discharge channel in a short duration, kinetic theory dictates gaseous molecules undergo a rapid increase in pressure and thus expand outward from the lightning creating a shock wave audible as thunder. Since the sound waves propagate not from a single point source but along the length of the lightning's path, the sound origin's varying distances from the observer can generate a rolling or rumbling effect. Perception of the sonic characteristics are further complicated by factors such as the irregular and possibly branching geometry of the lightning channel, by acoustic echoing from terrain, and by the typically multiple-stroke characteristic of the lightning strike.
Since light travels at a significantly greater speed than sound through air, an observer can approximate the distance to the strike by timing the interval between the visible lightning and the audible thunder it generates. At standard atmospheric temperature and pressures near ground level, sound will travel at roughly 343m/s (1125 ft/sec); a lightning flash preceding its thunder by five seconds would be about one mile distant.
Lightning-induced magnetism Edit
The movement of electrical charges produces a magnetic field (see electromagnetism). The intense currents of a lightning discharge create a fleeting but very strong magnetic field. Where the lightning current path passes through rock, soil, or metal these materials can become permanently magnetized. This effect is known as lightning-induced remanent magnetism, or LIRM. These currents follow the least resistive path, often horizontally near the surface but sometimes vertically, where faults, ore bodies, or ground water offers a less resistive path. Lightning-induced magnetic anomalies can be mapped in the ground, and analysis of magnetized materials can confirm lightning was the source of the magnetization and provide an estimate of the peak current of the lightning discharge.
Records and locationsEdit
On average, lightning flashes occur on earth about 100 times every second. 80% of these flashes are in-cloud and 20% are cloud-to-ground.
- See also: Error: Template must be given at least one article name For most landmasses, lightning strikes most often during the summer, limiting the strike numbers. The spot with the most lightning lies deep in the mountains of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, near the small village of Kifuka which has an elevation of 3,200 feet (975 m). Thunderbolts pelt this land, and each year on average, 158 bolts occur over each square kilometer (equivalent to 10 city-blocks square). Singapore has one of the highest rates of lightning activity in the world. The city of Teresina in northern Brazil has the third-highest rate of occurrences of lightning strikes in the world. The surrounding region is referred to as the Chapada do Corisco ("Flash Lightning Flatlands"). In the US, Central Florida sees more lightning than any other area. For example, in what is called "Lightning Alley", an area from Tampa, to Orlando, there are as many as 50 strikes per square mile (about 20 per km²) per year. The Empire State Building is struck by lightning on average 23 times each year, and was once struck 8 times in 24 minutes.
Lightning can also strike indoor pools, directed into the pump by electrical circuits from outdoor power poles. Such strikes could potentially kill people who are swimming or walking on wet floors around a pool. In 2000, lightning killed two boys in an outdoor pool in Florida.
A single lightning strike can have a potential of a billion volts and deliver 100,000 amperes of current. If a bolt directly hits a marine animal swimming on the surface, it will undoubtedly hurt or kill the animal. Lightning strikes have killed or injured people on the surface more than 30 yards away.
On 31 October 2005, sixty-eight dairy cows, all in full milk, died on a farm at Fernbrook on the Waterfall Way near Dorrigo, New South Wales after being struck by lightning. Three others were paralysed for several hours but they later made a full recovery. The cows were sheltering under a tree when it was struck by lightning and the electricity spread onto the surrounding soil killing the animals.
Lightning rarely strikes the open ocean, although some sea regions are lightning "hot spots." Winter storms passing off the east coast of the United States often erupt with electrical activity when they cross the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream, for example, has roughly as many lightning strikes as the southern plains of the USA.
- Further information: Lightning detector
The earliest detector invented to warn of the approach of a thunder storm was lightning bells. Benjamin Franklin installed one such device in his house. The detector was based on an electrostatic device called the 'electric chimes' invented by Andrew Gordon in 1742.
Lightning discharges generate a wide range of electromagnetic radiations, including radio-frequency pulses. The times at which a pulse from a given lightning discharge arrive at several receivers can be used to locate the source of the discharge. The United States federal government has constructed a nation-wide grid of such lightning detectors, allowing lightning discharges to be tracked in real time throughout the continental U.S.
In addition to ground-based lightning detection, several instruments aboard satellites have been constructed to observe lightning distribution. These include the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), aboard OrbView-1 satellite launched on April 3, 1995, and the subsequent Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard TRMM launched on November 28, 1997.
Notable lightning strikes Edit
Some lightning strikes have caused either numerous fatalities or great damage. The following is a partial list:
- A particularly deadly lightning incident occurred in Brescia, Italy in 1769. Lightning struck the Church of St. Nazaire, igniting the 100 tons of gunpowder in its vaults; the resulting explosion killed 3000 people and destroyed a sixth of the city.
- The deadliest lightning strike since 1983 occurred on November 2, 1994, when lighting struck fuel tanks in Dronka, Egypt and caused 469 fatalities.
- 1902: A lightning strike damaged the upper section of the Eiffel Tower, requiring the reconstruction of its top
- December 8, 1963: Pan Am Flight 214 crashed as result of a lightning strike, and 81 people were killed.
- July 1970, the central mast of the Orlunda radio transmitter collapsed after a lightning strike destroyed its basement insulator.
- December 24, 1971: LANSA Flight 508 crashed as a result of lightning in Peru, with 91 people killed.
- August 2004: Lightning strike killed 31 jersey cows sheltering under a tree in Denmark.
As expressions and symbolsEdit
The expression "Lightning never strikes twice (in the same place)" is similar to "Opportunity never knocks twice" in the vein of a "once in a lifetime" opportunity, i.e., something that is generally considered improbable. Lightning occurs frequently and more so in specific areas. Since various factors alter the probability of strikes at any given location, repeat lightning strikes have a very low probability (but are not impossible). Similarly, "A bolt from the blue" refers to something totally unexpected.
In French and Italian, the expression for "Love at first sight" is Coup de foudre and Colpo di fulmine, respectively, which literally translated means "lightning strike". Some European languages have a separate word for lightning which strikes the ground (as opposed to lightning in general); often it is a cognate of the English word "rays". The name of New Zealand's most celebrated thoroughbred horse, Phar Lap, derives from the shared Zhuang and Thai word for lightning.
The bolt of lightning in heraldry is called a thunderbolt and is shown as a zigzag with non-pointed ends. This symbol usually represents power and speed. In Hindu mythology the thunderbolt (Sanskrit Vajra) is an attribute of the Hindu god Indra. The lightning bolt or thunderbolt appears also as a heraldic charge.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 NGDC - NOAA. "Volcanic Lightning". National Geophysical Data Center - NOAA. Retrieved on September 21, 2007.
- ↑ Munoz, Rene (2003). "Factsheet: Lightning". University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Retrieved on November 7, 2007.
- ↑ Rakov, Vladimir A. (1999). "Lightning Makes Glass". University of Florida, Gainesville. Retrieved on November 7, 2007.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 National Weather Service (2007). "Lightning Safety". National Weather Service. Retrieved on September 21, 2007.
- ↑ Baer, Gregory (2003). Life: The Odds (And How to Improve Them). New York City: Gotham Books. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-1592400331, http://books.google.com/books?id=aN2ZoTBLYMsC&pg=PA87&dq=lightning+++-wikipedia+odds+%22576,000+to+1+%22&sig=ACfU3U2FJ7kx2I_Q0z5EScP4nvmDQcB10g#PPA86,M1.
- ↑ USGS (1998). "Bench collapse sparks lightning, roiling clouds". United States Geological Society. Retrieved on September 21, 2007.
- ↑ Micah Fink for PBS. "How Lightning Forms". Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved on September 21, 2007.
- ↑ Krider, E. Philip (2004), "Benjamin Franklin and the First Lightning Conductors", Proceedings of International Commission on History of Meteorology 1 (1): 1–13, ISSN 1551-3580 Pages 3-4.
- ↑ E. Philip Krider (2004). "pdf file Benjamin Franklin and the First Lightning Conductors" (.pdf). Proceedings of International Commission on History of Meteorology. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Wåhlin, Lars; Wh̄lin, Lars (1986). Atmosphere electrostatics. Forest Grove, Ore: Research Studies Press. ISBN 0-86380-042-4.
- ↑ Amarendra Swarup (2006). "Physicists create great balls of fire". New Scientist. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ E. Philip Krider (2006). "Benjamin Franklin and Lightning Rods". Physics today.org. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Rakov, V; Uman, M, Lightning: Physics and Effects, Cambridge University Press, 2003
- ↑ April Holladay (2007). "Not so hot lightning". WeatherQuesting. Retrieved on October 11, 2007.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Skinny lightning bolts
- ↑ NASA (2005). "Flashes in the Sky: Lightning Zaps Space Radiation Surrounding Earth". NASA. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Robert Roy Britt (1999). "Lightning Interacts with Space, Electrons Rain Down". Space.com. Archived from the original on 2000-07-11. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Demirkol, M. K.; Inan, Umran S.; Bell, T.F.; Kanekal, S.G.; and Wilkinson, D.C. (December 1999). "(abstract) Ionospheric effects of relativistic electron enhancement events". Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 26 (No. 23): 3557–3560, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GeoRL..26.3557D (abstract).
- ↑ "Electric Ice". NASA. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ What causes lightning?
- ↑ Frazier, Alicia (December 12 2005). "THEORIES OF LIGHTNING FORMATION". Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
- ↑ Spectacular slow-motion videos of stepped-leader formation are available on YouTube.com. See: "Coolest Lightning in Slow Motion" and "Slow Motion Video of a Lightning Negative Ground Flash".
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Martin A. Uman (1986). All About Lightning, Dover Publications, Inc.. pp. 103–110. ISBN 0-486-25237-X.
- ↑ A. V. Gurevich, G. M. Milikh, and R. Roussel-Dupre (1992) "Runaway electron mechanism of air breakdown and preconditioning during a thunderstorm," Physics Letters A, vol. 165, pages 463-468.
- ↑ Gurevich (2003-12-04), "How Lightning Works Is Still A Mystery", The Economist
- ↑ Dwyer, Joseph R., "A bolt out of the blue," Scientific American, vol. 292, no. 5, pages 64-71 (May 2005)
- ↑ Shrope, Mark (September 9 2004). "Lightning research: The bolt catchers" ([dead link]). Nature 431: 120–121. doi:10.1038/431120a, http://www.nature.com/news/2004/040906/pf/431120a_pf.html. Retrieved on 27 July 2007.
- ↑ G. J. Fishman, P. N. Bhat, R. Malozzi, J. M. Horack, T. Koshut, C. Kouvelioton, G. N. Pendleton, C. A. Meegan, R. B. Wilson, W. S. Paciesas, S. J. Goodman, and H. J. Christian (1994) "Discovery of intense gamma-ray flashes of atmospheric origin," Science, vol. 264, pages 1313-1316.
- ↑ U.S. Inan, S.C. Reising, G.J. Fishman, and J.M. Horack. On the association of terrestrial gamma-ray bursts with lightning and implications for sprites. Geophysical Research Letters, 23(9):1017-20, May 1996. As quoted by http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/spr20010406.html#InanUS:theatg Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- ↑ "NWS JetStream - The Positive and Negative Side of Lightning". NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
- ↑ Bolt from the Blue
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Boccippio, D. J., et al. (August 1995). "Sprites, ELF Transients, and Positive Ground Strokes". Science 269: 1088–1091. doi:10.1126/science.269.5227.1088. PMID 17755531.
- ↑ "Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) Bulletins 1999 December: Schleicher ASK 21 two seat glider".
- ↑ Lawrence, David. "Bolt from the Blue". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ "Aviation Safety Network". Retrieved on 2006-06-12.
- ↑ http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/design/q0234.shtml
- ↑ "A Lightning Primer from the GHCC: Types of Lightning Discharges".
- ↑ "Definition of Rocket Lightning, AMS Glossary of Meteorology". Retrieved on 2007-07-05.
- ↑ Hopkins, Albert Allis; Bond, Alexander Russell (1914), Scientific American Reference Book, New York: Munn & Co., http://books.google.com/books?id=4L80AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA508&lpg=PA508&dq=%22rocket+lightning%22+-wikipedia+(rare%7Crarest)&source=web&ots=6qMjJkVlq3&sig=NDcYf1ft5FYiThq3MqaZjBP8jFc Page 508
- ↑ "Beaded Lightning". Glossary of Meteorology, 2nd edition. American Meteorological Society (AMS) (2000). Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
- ↑ Uman (1986) Chapter 16, pages 139-143
- ↑ "Glossary". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2008-09-02.
- ↑ Kirthi Tennakone (2007). "Ball Lightning". Georgia State University. Retrieved on September 21, 2007.
- ↑ Electrical World and Engineer. 1904-03-05.
- ↑ Singer, Stanley (1971). The Nature of Ball Lightning. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0306304945.
- ↑ The scientist Coleman was the first to propose this theory in 1993 in Weather, a publication of the Royal Meteorological Society.
- ↑ "Lightning balls created in the lab". New Scientist. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Sterling D. Allen - Pure Energy Systems News (2005). "BLAM-O!! Power from Lightning". Pure Energy Systems. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 Holoscience.com. "Image of lightning types and altitudes" (.jpg). Holoscience.com. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M.G.; Kanmae, T.; Sentman, D.D. (June 6 2007), ""Observed emission rates in sprite streamer heads"", Geophys. Res. Lett. 34 (11): L11105, doi:10.1029/2007GL029881, L11105
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen (2007). "Observed emission rates in sprite streamer heads". Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Dave Mosher (2007). "Video Reveals "Sprite" Lightning Secrets". Live Science. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 Tom Clarke (2002). "Blue jets connect Earth's electric circuit". Nature.com.
- ↑ 54.0 54.1 April Holladay (2005). "Blue jet stabs high into stormy sky". Weather Questing. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Penn State College of Engineering (2002). "Researchers capture unusual sprite-like blue jet". Penn State College of Engineering. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ W. Wayt Gibbs for Scientific American. "Lightning's strange cousins flicker faster than light itself". Scientific American. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ "An empirical study of the nuclear explosion-induced lightning seen on IVY-MIKE", Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (D5): 5696–5712, 1987, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JGR....92.5696C
- ↑ Chris Kridler (2002). "July 25, 2002 - Triggered lightning video" (video). requires QuickTime. Chris Kridler's Sky Diary. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Uman (1986), chapter 4, pages 26-34
- ↑ Pliny the Younger. "Pliny the Younger's Observations". Retrieved on 2007-07-05. "Behind us were frightening dark clouds, rent by lightning twisted and hurled, opening to reveal huge figures of flame."
- ↑ David W. Koopman and T.D. Wilkerson (1971) "Channeling of an ionizing streamer by a laser beam," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 42, pages 1883-1886. See also: K. A. Saum and David W. Koopman (November 1972) "Discharges guided by laser-induced rarefication channels," Physics of Fluids, vol. 15, pages 2077-2079.
- ↑ C. W. Schubert (December 1977) "The laser lightning rod: A feasibility study" Technical report AFFDL-TR-78-60, ADA063847, [U.S.] Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB [Air Force Base] Ohio. For abstract, see: http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA063847 .
- ↑ Charles W. Schubert and Jack R. Lippert(1979) "Investigation into triggering lightning with a pulsed laser" in: A. H. Guenther and M. Kristiansen, ed.s, Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Pulse Power Conference, Lubbock, Texas, 1979 (Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE, 1979), pages 132-135. Available on-line at: ftp://ftp.pppl.gov/pub/neumeyer/Pulsed_Power_Conf/data/papers/1979/1979_025.PDF .
- ↑ Lippert, J. R. (1977). "A laser-induced lightning concept experiment". Air Force Flight Dynamics Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Vladimir A. Rakov and Martin A. Uman, Lightning: Physics and effects (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pages 296-299. Available on-line at: http://books.google.com/books?id=NviMsvVOHJ4C&pg=PA296&lpg=PA296&dq=lightning++%22laser+beams%22&source=web&ots=uJ5iuvQDHX&sig=MwS_97XIbUcRR2xRWtMjUB--q1U&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result .
- ↑ "UNM researchers use lasers to guide lightning". Campus News, The University of New Mexico (January 29 2001). Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
- ↑ Nasrullah Khan, Norman Mariun, Ishak Aris and J Yeak (2002). "Laser-triggered lightning discharge". New Journal of Physics, vol. 4, pages 61.1-61.20. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ P. Rambo, J. Biegert, V. Kubecek, J. Schwarz, A. Bernstein, J.-C. Diels, R. Bernstein, and K. Stahlkopf (1999). "Laboratory tests of laser-induced lightning discharge". Journal of Optical Technology, vol. 66, issue 3, pages 194-198. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Méjean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. Kasparian (2004). "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions". Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, no. 23, pages 5781-5783. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ D. Wang, T. Ushio, Z.-I. Kawasaki, K. Matsuura, Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, Y. Sonoi and N. Simokura (1995). "A Possible Way to Trigger Lightning Using a Laser". (Abstract). Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol. 57, no. 5, pages 456-466. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Terawatt Laser Beam Shot in the Clouds Provokes Lightning Strike News report based on: Jérôme Kasparian et al. (14 April 2008) "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunder clouds," Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 8, pages 5757-5763.
- ↑ Laser Triggers Electrical Activity in Thunderstorm for the First Time Newswise, Retrieved on August 6, 2008. News report based on: Jérôme Kasparian et al. (14 April 2008) "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunder clouds," Optics Express, vol. 16, no. 8, pages 5757-5763.
- ↑ Robert J. Strangeway - Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics UCLA (1995). "Plasma Wave Evidence for Lightning on Venus". Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol. 57, pages 537-556. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. "Image of lightning hitting a tree" (.jpg). National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Ribert E. Cripe. "Lightning protection for trees and related property" (pdf). Journal of Arboriculture. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Olympia Forestry Sciences Laboratory (2004). "Silviculture and Forest Models Team - Oak Root Research". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Gopalan (2005-11-01). "Lightning protection of airport runway". ASCE Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 19 (4).
- ↑ Nair, Zinnia; Aparna K.M., Khandagale R.S., Gopalan T.V. (May 1, 2005). "Failure of 220 kV double circuit transmission line tower due to lightning". Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities Vol.19 (No.2).
- ↑ Scientists close in on source of X-rays in lightning, Physorg.com ,July 15, 2008. Accessed July 2008
- ↑ Graham KWT. 1961. The Re-magnetization of a Surface Outcrop by Lightning Currents. Geophys. J. Roy. Astron Soc., 6, p.85-102; Cox A. 1961. Anomalous Remanent Magnetization of Basalt. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1038-E, p. 131-160.
- ↑ Bevan B. 1995. Magnetic Surveys and Lightning. Near Surface Views (newsletter of the Near Surface Geophysics section of the Society of Exploration Geophysics. October 1995, p.7-8.
- ↑ Sakai HS, Sunada, S, Sakurano H. 1998. Study of Lightning Current by Remanent Magnetization. Electrical Engineering in Japan, Vol. 123, No. 4. p.41-47
- ↑ Archaeo-Physics, LLC | Lightning-induced magnetic anomalies on archaeological sites
- ↑ Maki, David (2005). Lightning strikes and prehistoric ovens: Determining the source of magnetic anomalies using techniques of environmental magnetism. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, Vol. 20, No. 5, 449–459
- ↑ Verrier V, Rochette P. 2002 Estimating Peak Currents at Ground Lightning Impacts Using Remanent Magnetization. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, No. 18, p. 14-1-4.
- ↑ April Holladay (2005). "Where lightning strikes most, and how lightning forms". Weather Questing. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ National Environmental Agency (2002). "Lightning Activity in Singapore". National Environmental Agency. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Paesi Online. "Teresina: Vacations and Tourism". Paesi Online. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ NASA (2007). "Staying Safe in Lightning Alley". NASA. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ Kevin Pierce (2000). "Summer Lightning Ahead". Florida Environment.com. Retrieved on September 24, 2007.
- ↑ 91.0 91.1 Uman (1986), chapter 6, page 47
- ↑ "ROY SULLIVAN", The New York Times Archives (from UPI) (September 30 1983). Retrieved on 28 July 2007.
- ↑ "Lightning kills 30 people in Pakistan's north", Reuters (July 20 2007). Retrieved on 27 July 2007.
- ↑ Everybody out of the pool!
- ↑ 95.0 95.1 Lightning strikes fish
- ↑ Lightning kills 106 cows
- ↑ The Franklin Institute.Ben Franklin's Lightning Bells. Accessed 2008-12-14
- ↑ Lightning Detection Systems, http://www.nwstc.noaa.gov/METEOR/Lightning/detection.htm, retrieved on 27 July 2007 NOAA page on how the U.S. national lightning detection system operates
- ↑ Vaisala Thunderstorm Online Application Portal, https://thunderstorm.vaisala.com/tux/jsp/explorer/explorer.jsp, retrieved on 27 July 2007 Real-time map of lightning discharges in U.S.
- ↑ NASA (2007). "NASA Dataset Information". NASA. Retrieved on September 11, 2007.
- ↑ NASA (2007). "NASA LIS Images". NASA. Retrieved on September 11, 2007.
- ↑ NASA (2007). "NASA OTD Images". NASA. Retrieved on September 11, 2007.
- ↑ Rakov, A., Vladimir (2003). Page 2 of Lightning: Physics and Effects. Publisher: Cambridge University Press. Limited preview available at http://books.google.ca/books?id=NviMsvVOHJ4C&printsec=frontcover#PPA2,M1.
- ↑ Evans, D. An appraisal of underground gas storage technologies and incidents, for the development of risk assessment methodology, Health and Safety Executive. pp. 121, http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr605.pdf. Retrieved on 14 August 2008.
- ↑ Mogil, H., Michael. "Hurricanes, Tornadoes, Floods, Heat Waves, Snow Storms, Global Warming and Other Atmospheric Disturbances". New York: BlueRed Press Ltd.
- ↑ Environmental Assessment Services for Permanent Aviation Fuel Facility Environmental Impact Assessment Report. Section H4.2: Incidents Involving Aviation Fuel. Available: http://www.epd.gov.hk/eia/register/report/eiareport/eia_1272006/EIA_Report/appendix/Appendix_H4.pdf
- ↑ Oil and Gas article at http://www.ogj.com/display_article/13681/7/ARCHI/none/none/1/INDUSTRY-BRIEFS/ (subscription required)
- ↑ La Tour Eiffel - The Eiffel Tower - Paris Things To Do - www.paris-things-to-do.co.uk
- ↑ Aviation Safety Net Accident Record
- ↑ BBC NEWS | Europe | Lightning bolt kills Danish cows
- ↑ "Jesus actor struck by lightning". BBC News International Version (October 23, 2003). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
- ↑ "Lightning". Phar Lap: Australia's wonder horse. Museum Victoria.
- My Very Close Encounters With Florida Lightning Bolts By Thomas F. Giella, Retired Meteorologist & Space Plasma Physicist
- Alex Larsen (1905). "Photographing Lightning With a Moving Camera". Annual Report Smithsonian Institute 60 (1): 119–127.
- André Anders (2003). "Tracking Down the Origin of Arc Plasma Science I. Early Pulsed and Oscillating Discharges". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 31 (4): 1052–1059. doi:10.1109/TPS.2003.815476. This is also available at
- Anna Gosline (May 2005). "Thunderbolts from space". New Scientist 186 (2498): 30–34, http://www.newscientist.com/channel/fundamentals/mg18624981.200.
- Martin A. Uman (1986). All About Lightning, Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-25237-X. This book is written for the layman.
- V. A. Rakov; Martin A. Uman (2003). Lightning, physics and effects, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58327-6. Sample, in .pdf form, consisting of all of the book through page 20.
- The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, Vol. 12, Issue 323, July 19, 1828 The Project Gutenberg eBook (early lightning research)
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Jets, sprites & elvesEdit
- Homepage of the Eurosprite campaign, itself part of the CAL (Coupled Atmospheric Layers) research group
- March 2, 1999, University of Houston: UH Physicists Pursue Lightning-Like Mysteries Quote: "...Red sprites and blue jets are brief but powerful lightning-like flashes that appear at altitudes of 40-100 km (25-60 miles) above thunderstorms..."
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- Sprites, jets and TLE pictures and articles
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