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An ocean (from Greek Ωκεανός, Okeanos (Oceanus)) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt.


Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[1][2] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[3] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria. These divisions are (in descending order of size):

The Pacific and Atlantic may be further subdivided by the equator into northern and southern portions. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also some smaller bodies of saltwater that are on land and not interconnected with the World Ocean, such as the Aral Sea and the Great Salt Lake – though they may be referred to as 'seas', they are actually salt lakes.

As ocean covers most of Earth’s surface, it has a significant effect on the biosphere. The evaporation of ocean water (as a component of the water cycle) is the source of most rainfall, and ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns. Life within the ocean had already evolved 3 billion years prior to the occurrence of animal and plant life on land. The ocean is home to many species of life throughout all aquatic layers. In addition, the amount of life and distance from the shore (abiotic component) affect the major distribution of marine biomes. [4]

Geologically, an ocean is an area of oceanic crust covered by water. Oceanic crust is the thin layer of solidified volcanic basalt that covers the Earth's mantle where there are no continents. From this perspective, there are three oceans today: the World Ocean and the Caspian and Black Seas, the latter two having been formed by the collision of Cimmeria with Laurasia. The Mediterranean Sea is very nearly a discrete ocean, being connected to the World Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, and indeed several times over the last few million years movement of the African continent has closed the strait off entirely. The Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean through the Bosporus, but this is in effect a natural canal cut through continental rock some 7,000 years ago, rather than a piece of oceanic sea floor like the Strait of Gibraltar.

Physical propertiesEdit

Further information: Sea water

The area of the World Ocean is 361 million square kilometers (139 million sq mi),[5] its volume is approximately 1.3 billion cubic kilometers (310 million cu mi)[6]. This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,111 kilometers (690 mi). Its average depth is 3,790 meters (12,430 ft).[5] Nearly half of the world's marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep.[2] The vast expanses of deep ocean (anything below 200m) cover about 66% of the Earth's surface.[7] This does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea.

The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1021 kilograms, which is about 0.023% of the Earth's total mass. Less than 3% is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, mostly in the ocean.

Color Edit

Main article: Color of water

A common misconception is that the oceans are blue primarily because the sky is blue. In fact, water has a very slight blue color that can only be seen in large volumes. While the sky's reflection does contribute to the blue appearance of the surface, it is not the primary cause.[8] The primary cause is the absorption by the water molecules' nuclei of red photons from the incoming light, the only known example of color in nature resulting from vibrational, rather than electronic, dynamics.[9]


A number of sailors and professional mariners have reported that the ocean often emits a visible glow, or luminescence, which extends for miles at night. In 2005, scientists announced that for the first time, photographic evidence had been obtained of this glow.[10] It may be due to bioluminescence.


Main article: Ocean exploration
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Travel on the surface of the ocean through the use of boats dates back to prehistoric times, but only in modern times has extensive underwater travel become possible.

The deepest point in the ocean is the Marianas Trench located in the Pacific Ocean near the Northern Mariana Islands. It has a maximum depth of 10,923 meters (35,838 ft) [11]. It was fully surveyed in 1951 by the British naval vessel, "Challenger II" which gave its name to the deepest part of the trench, the "Challenger Deep". In 1960, the Trieste successfully reached the bottom of the trench, manned by a crew of two men.

Much of the bottom of the world's oceans are unexplored and unmapped. A global image of many underwater features larger than 10 kilometers (6 mi) was created in 1995 based on gravitational distortions of the nearby sea surface.


File:Oceanic divisions.svg
Oceans are divided into numerous regions depending on the physical and biological conditions of these areas. The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be subdivided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance. The photic zone covers the oceans from surface level to 200 meters down. This is the region where the photosynthesis most commonly occurs and therefore contains the largest biodiversity in the ocean. Since plants can only survive with photosynthesis any life found lower than this must either rely on material floating down from above (see marine snow) or find another primary source; this often comes in the form of hydrothermal vents in what is known as the aphotic zone (all depths exceeding 200m). The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic. The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be further divided into regions that succeed each other vertically. The mesopelagic is the uppermost region, with its lowermost boundary at a thermocline of 12 °C, which, in the tropics generally lies between 700 and 1,000 m. After that is the bathypelagic lying between 10 °C and 4 °C, or between 700 or 1,000 m and 2,000 or 4,000 m. Lying along the top of the abyssal plain is the abyssalpelagic, whose lower boundary lies at about 6,000 m. The final zone falls into the oceanic trenches, and is known as the hadalpelagic. This lies between 6,000 m and 10,000 m and is the deepest oceanic zone.

Along with pelagic aphotics zones there are also benthic aphotic zones, these correspond to the three deepest zones. The bathyal zone covers the continental slope and the rise down to about 4,000 m. The abyssal zone covers the abyssal plains between 4,000 and 6,000 m. Lastly, the hadal zone corresponds to the hadalpelagic zone which is found in the oceanic trenches. The pelagic zone can also be split into two subregions, the neritic zone and the oceanic zone. The neritic encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves, while the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water. In contrast, the littoral zone covers the region between low and high tide and represents the transitional area between marine and terrestrial conditions. It is also known as the intertidal zone because it is the area where tide level affects the conditions of the region.

Climate effectsEdit

One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones (also called "typhoons" and "hurricanes" depending upon where the system forms). Ocean currents greatly affect the Earth's climate by transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where they may be carried inland by winds. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans.


Lifeforms native to oceans include (among others):


The oceans are essential to transportation: most of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports. Important ship canals include the Saint Lawrence Seaway, Panama Canal, and Suez Canal. They are also an important source of valuable food items for the fishing industry. Some of these are shrimp, fish, crabs and lobster.

Ancient oceansEdit

File:Ocean-birth hg.png

Continental drift has reconfigured the Earth's oceans, joining and splitting ancient oceans to form the current oceans. Ancient oceans include:

Extraterrestrial oceansEdit

See also Extraterrestrial liquid water

Earth is the only known planet with liquid water on its surface and is certainly the only one in our own solar system. However, liquid water is thought to be present under the surface of the Galilean moons Europa and, with less certainty, Callisto and Ganymede. Geysers have been found on Enceladus, though these may not involve bodies of liquid water. Other icy moons may have once had internal oceans that have now frozen, such as Triton. The planets Uranus and Neptune may also possess large oceans of liquid water under their thick atmospheres, though their internal structure is not well understood at this time.

There is currently much debate over whether Mars once had an ocean of water in its northern hemisphere, and over what happened to it if it did; recent findings by the Mars Exploration Rover mission indicate it had some long-term standing water in at least one location, but its extent is not known.

Astronomers believe that Venus had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history. If they existed, all trace of them seems to have vanished in later resurfacing.

Liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, though it may be more accurate to describe them as "lakes" rather than an "ocean." The Cassini-Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. A more recent fly-by of Titan made by Cassini has produced radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes near the polar regions where it is colder. Titan is also thought likely to have a subterranean water ocean under the mix of ice and hydrocarbons that forms its outer crust.

Beyond the solar system, Gliese 581 c is at the right distance from its sun for liquid water to exist on the planet's surface. Since it does not transit its sun, there is no way to know if there is any water there. However, the greenhouse effect of Gliese 581 c would make it too hot for oceans to exist on the surface. However, the greenhouse effect of Gliese 581 d may bring temperatures suitable enough for the existence of surface oceans. HD 209458 b may have water vapour in its atmosphere--this is currently being disputed. Gliese 436 b is believed to have "hot ice." Neither of these planets are cool enough for liquid water--but if water molecules exist there, they are also likely to be found on planets at a suitable temperature.[12]


The original concept of "ocean" goes back to notions of Mesopotamian and Indo-European mythology, imagining the world to be encircled by a great river. Okeanos, "Ωκεανός" in Greek, reflects the ancient Greek observation that a strong current flowed off Gibraltar and their subsequent assumption that it was a great river. (Compare also Samudra from Hindu mythology and Jörmungandr from Norse mythology.) The world was imagined to be enclosed by a celestial ocean above the heavens, and an ocean of the underworld below (compare Rasā, Varuna).

See also Edit


  1. "Ocean". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2002. New York: Columbia University Press
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Distribution of land and water on the planet". UN Atlas of the Oceans
  3. Spilhaus, Athelstan F. 1942 (Jul.). "Maps of the whole world ocean." Geographical Review (American Geographical Society). Vol. 32 (3): pp. 431-5.
  4. Biology: Concepts & Connections. Chapter 34: The Biosphere: An Introduction to Earth's Diverse Environment. (sec 34.7)
  5. 5.0 5.1 "The World's Oceans and Seas". Encarta.
  6. Qadri, Syed (2003). "Volume of Earth's Oceans". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  7. Drazen, Jeffrey C.. "Deep-Sea Fishes". School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology, University of University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  8. BAD PHYSICS: Misconceptions spread by K-6 Grade School Textbooks
  9. Braun, C. L. and Smirnov, S. N. (1993) Why is water blue? J. Chem. Edu. 70, 612.
  10. Mystery Ocean Glow Confirmed in Satellite Photos, By Robert Roy Britt, LiveScience Managing Editor, October 4, 2005.
  11. Ocean Studies - RAIN
  12. Hot "ice" may cover recently discovered planet [1]

External linksEdit

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