Vapor in the morning of Kinrinko, Japan

Photoelectric effect
Photoelectric effect

A diagram illustrating the emission of photoelectrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material.

Light-matter interaction
Low energy phenomena Photoelectric effect
Mid-energy phenomena Compton scattering
High energy phenomena Pair production

Photovapor is an analogy of photoelectron.

Temperature dependence of W6 and W5 population of water cluster had been emphasized for the explanation of the mechanism for the Evaporation of water.

Photovapor is an analogy of Photoelectron. If incindence angle of photon on the surface of water is very oblique, photovapor of Dangling bond water molecules might have antiparallel spin normal to the incidence plane.

Simple water modelsEdit

The simplest water models treat the water molecule as rigid and rely only on non-bonded interactions. The electrostatic interaction is modeled using Coulomb's law and the dispersion and repulsion forces using the Lennard-Jones potential. The potential for models such as TIP3P and TIP4P is represented by

$ E_{ab} = \sum_{i} ^{\text{on }a} \sum_{j} ^{\text{on }b} \frac {k_Cq_iq_j}{r_{ij}} + \frac {A}{r_{\text{O}\text{O}}^{12}} - \frac {B}{r_{\text{O}\text{O}}^6} $

where kC, the electrostatic constant, has a value of 332.1 Å·kcal/mol in the units commonly used in molecular modeling; qi are the partial charges relative to the charge of the electron; rij is the distance between two atoms or charged sites; and A and B are the Lennard-Jones parameters. The charged sites may be on the atoms or on dummy sites (such as lone pairs). In most water models, the Lennard-Jones term applies only to the interaction between the oxygen atoms.

The figure below shows the general shape of the 3- to 6-site water models. The exact geometric parameters (the OH distance and the HOH angle) vary depending on the model.

Water models

See alsoEdit